Cambodia's Performance on the Resource Governance Index
Cambodia received a "failing" grade of 29, ranking 52nd out of 58 countries. Very low scores on the Reporting Practices and Enabling Environment components contrasted with a higher score on Institutional & Legal Setting.
(out of 58)
(out of 100)
|42||Institutional & Legal Setting||52|
|40||Safeguards & Quality Controls||46|
Institutional & Legal Setting (Rank: 42nd/58, Score: 52/100) learn more
Cambodia's "partial" score of 52 is the product of an emerging legal framework and limited disclosure requirements.
The Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy is the primary collecting agency for mining revenues, though the Economy and Finance Ministry also collects some revenues. The Cambodian National Petroleum Authority (CNPA) directly collects fees from oil companies.
The primary legislation governing the sector is the 2001 Law on Management and Exploitation of Mineral Resources, which contains critical gaps and ambiguities. A Petroleum Law has been in draft for over 10 years; the amended Petroleum Regulations currently govern the sector.
Environmental impact assessments are required but often provide little information and are not easily accessed by the public. Both the Mining Law and the petroleum regulations contain non-disclosure provisions, and there is no equivalent of a Freedom of Information Act. The licensing process is opaque, involving direct negotiations between companies and the government.
Reporting Practices (Rank: 56th/58, Score: 13/100) learn more
Cambodia's "failing" score of 13 is its lowest on any component, reflecting a near-total lack of government data on the extractive sector.
The government does not publish information on the licensing process, and contract terms are not disclosed. The Economy and Finance Ministry publishes extractive revenues only in aggregated form and does not include information on current operations and indicators. The CNPA does not publish an annual report. MIME, CNPA and other government agencies recently expanded the information available on their websites to include lists of relevant laws and regulations and the names of operating companies. Cambodia's resources have not been extensively surveyed or developed, so there is little information on reserves, although estimates of potential revenues from these resources vary from millions to billions of dollars.
Safeguards & Quality Controls (Rank: 40th/58, Score: 46/100) learn more
Cambodia's "weak" score of 46 is due to insufficient government reporting mechanisms and a lack of effective checks on the licensing and budgetary process.
Cambodia's licensing authorities are technically independent, but powerful officials often have a stake in private enterprises. The Mining Law and other regulations do not effectively limit the discretionary powers of the licensing agencies and there is no process by which to appeal licensing decisions. The National Assembly has limited oversight powers; the executive branch's Council for Development of Cambodia oversees contracts and licensing issues. The national audit office reviews government accounts and publishes results, but is subject to little legislative oversight.
However, the Cambodian government appears to be taking steps toward reform. A newly enacted Law on Anti-Corruption prohibits bribe-taking and requires public officials to disclose their assets.
Enabling Environment (Rank: 43rd/58, Score: 20/100) learn more
Cambodia received a "failing" score of 20, performing particularly poorly on rankings of corruption control and the rule of law.
INSTITUTIONAL & LEGAL SETTING
SAFEGUARDS & QUALITY CONTROLS
To explore all data and compare country scores, use the RGI Data Tool.
Key Economic Indicators
|GDP (constant 2011 international $ billion)||4.7||7.1||12.8|
|GDP per capita, PPP (constant 2005 international $)||1,035||1,508||2,083|
|Extractive exports (% total exports)||0||0||0|
|Source: World Bank.|