Myanmar's Performance on the Resource Governance Index
Myanmar received a "failing" score of 4, ranking last out of 58 countries. It performed extremely poorly on all components.
(out of 58)
(out of 100)
|58||Institutional & Legal Setting||8|
|57||Safeguards & Quality Controls||2|
Institutional & Legal Setting (Rank: 58th/58, Score: 8/100) learn more
Myanmar's natural resource legislation does not define the licensing process, the role of governmental authorities, or the fiscal system for extractive revenues, resulting in a "failing" score of 8.
The Energy Ministry and the state-owned Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE) oversee the petroleum sector and award contracts. Foreign companies must sign a production sharing contract with MOGE and accept the risk that the government may announce policy changes at any time.
Almost no information is available on the management of the extractive sector. Myanmar has no freedom of information law, and environmental and social impact assessments are not required. Even experts and those working directly with policymakers know very little about the inner workings of the system. It is unclear which authority receives payments from extractive companies. It is widely assumed that corruption is rampant in the sector and that much of the country's resource revenues have been diverted to the foreign bank accounts of a few government officials. Myanmar has expressed interest in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative but is not yet a signatory.
Reporting Practices (Rank: 57th/58, Score: 5/100) learn more
Myanmar provides no information on the licensing process or contract terms, and publishes only very limited industry data, leading to a "failing" score of 5.
Neither the Finance Ministry nor the Energy Ministry provides information on extractive revenues. Only the central bank publishes annual reports with historical information on license fees and the cost of subsidies, but they are not available online. The Central Statistical Organization publishes information on gas production volumes and exports.
Safeguards & Quality Controls (Rank: 57th/58, Score: 2/100) learn more
Myanmar's "failing" score of 2 is the product of a near-total lack of official oversight mechanisms.
There are no set limits on the discretion of licensing authorities. Their decisions cannot be appealed, and sudden changes in fiscal policy are common. The legislature has no clear oversight role in the extractive sector. Myanmar's auditor general has the authority to scrutinize extractive revenues, but audit procedures are not known, reports are not made public, and the auditor's findings are not systematically presented to lawmakers.
Enabling Environment (Rank: 58th/58, Score: 2/100) learn more
Myanmar received a "failing" score of 2, ranking near the bottom of global measurements of control of corruption, government effectiveness, democratic accountability, and the rule of law.
State-Owned Companies (Rank: 44th/45, Score: 2/100) learn more
There are three state-owned enterprises in the gas sector, including MOGE, which also acts as a regulator and may collect payments from foreign gas companies on the state's behalf. MOGE does not publish reports apart from occasional PowerPoint presentations aimed at investors, and these are not comprehensive. They include information on reserves, project costs, companies operating in the country, and production data.
INSTITUTIONAL & LEGAL SETTING
SAFEGUARDS & QUALITY CONTROLS
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Key Economic Indicators
|GDP (constant 2011 international $ billion)||..||..||..|
|GDP per capita, PPP (constant 2005 international $)||..||..||..|
|Extractive exports (% total exports)||..||..||39|
|Source: World Bank. Extractive exports 2011 data from 2010.|