Regulatory and public pressure to increase transparency about the real people who own, control, or gain substantial economic benefits from companies—also known as beneficial owners—is growing globally.
Dans la plupart des pays riches en ressources naturelles, lorsqu’une entreprise cherche à obtenir des droits d’exploration ou d’exploitation pétrolière, gazière ou minière, les règles de l’industrie exigent que les régulateurs vérifient certaines informations fondamentales avant d’octroyer une licence et le contrat s’y rattachant à l’entreprise.
"State capture" is defined as the efforts of individuals or firms to shape the formation of laws, policies, and regulations of the state to their own advantage by providing illicit private gains to public officials.
NRGI reviewed over 50 mining and oil laws and found that none required regulators to actually check whether applicants for extractive licenses are politically exposed persons. This briefing offers advice on how governments can strengthen their extractives licensing policies and processes to tackle basic corruption risks posed by such problematic beneficial ownership linkages.
In many oil-producing countries, the government receives a physical share of production, and that oil is then typically sold by the national oil company (NOC). These trading transactions are currently subject to limited regulation and even fewer reporting requirements.