Oversight actors can detect and prevent corruption in the oil, gas and mining sectors if they ask the right questions. Corruption schemes can be complex and opaque, yet clear patterns and similar signs of problematic behavior do exist across resource-rich countries.
In many oil-producing countries, the government receives a physical share of production, and that oil is then typically sold by the national oil company (NOC). These trading transactions are currently subject to limited regulation and even fewer reporting requirements.
In June 2004, the United States and the United Kingdom relinquished civil authority over post-conflict Iraq, ending thirteen months of occupation and marking the creation of an independent interim Iraqi government.