Four years after the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) began encouraging contract disclosure through its standard, this report assesses the extent to which governments of resource-rich countries have taken up the recommendation.
In many oil-producing countries, the government receives a physical share of production, and that oil is then typically sold by the national oil company (NOC). These trading transactions are currently subject to limited regulation and even fewer reporting requirements.
The sale of crude oil by governments and their national oil companies (NOCs) is one of the least scrutinized aspects of oil sector governance. This report is the first detailed examination of those sales, and focuses on the top ten oil exporting countries in sub-Saharan Africa.
The sale of crude oil by national oil companies (NOCs) generates a large share of government revenue in oil-producing countries. NOC export sales bring in more than two-thirds of total government income in countries such as Angola, Azerbaijan, Congo-Brazzaville, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Yemen.