Oversight actors can detect and prevent corruption in the oil, gas and mining sectors if they ask the right questions. Corruption schemes can be complex and opaque, yet clear patterns and similar signs of problematic behavior do exist across resource-rich countries.
Four years after the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) began encouraging contract disclosure through its standard, this report assesses the extent to which governments of resource-rich countries have taken up the recommendation.
Oil-rich Azerbaijan has failed to avoid the risks associated with oil producing countries. Revenues are accumulated in a national oil fund, set up in 1999 to effectively manage the country’s oil wealth. Despite its transparency, the fund lacks accountability. The main risk is the government’s spending, which is too high and of poor quality. With oil and gas revenue expected to decline in 2015, the government will be hard pressed to finance its current expenditure and achieve sustainability in the future.
Over the past decade, the boom in commodity prices and the growth of foreign exchange reserves have made Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWF) major forces in the global economy, with the largest funds managing well over $4 trillion in assets.
The sale of crude oil by national oil companies (NOCs) generates a large share of government revenue in oil-producing countries. NOC export sales bring in more than two-thirds of total government income in countries such as Angola, Azerbaijan, Congo-Brazzaville, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Yemen.