In many oil-producing countries, the national oil company (NOC) sells vast quantities of the state’s oil and gas. The sale of a state’s non-renewable natural resource endowment is often a revenue stream that can have a significant impact on a country’s national budget and development. The authors of this briefing use data from NRGI’s new National Oil Company database to examine the governance and corruption risks posed by NOCs' oil sales activities.
El precio del cobre se cuadruplicó entre el 2003 y el 2006, lo cual dio a Chile, el mayor productor del mundo, ingresos inesperados durante esos años. Pero, como ya es sabido, la bonanza experimentada gracias al cobre y a otros commodities no ha durado y los precios han disminuido desde entonces.
"State capture" is defined as the efforts of individuals or firms to shape the formation of laws, policies, and regulations of the state to their own advantage by providing illicit private gains to public officials.
Using Ghana as an example, this briefing outlines how payments-to-governments data can be used to: monitor whether company payments match what would be expected under the fiscal regime; to monitor the allocation and disbursement of mining royalties to subnational entities; and to monitor payments for infrastructure improvements in mining-affected areas.
Where there is free and equal access to political power, there are stronger laws, institutions and practices in place to help realize the full value of resource extraction and to manage resulting revenues. This guide shows how political parties can better devise policy platforms for resource governance.