El precio del cobre se cuadruplicó entre el 2003 y el 2006, lo cual dio a Chile, el mayor productor del mundo, ingresos inesperados durante esos años. Pero, como ya es sabido, la bonanza experimentada gracias al cobre y a otros commodities no ha durado y los precios han disminuido desde entonces.
"State capture" is defined as the efforts of individuals or firms to shape the formation of laws, policies, and regulations of the state to their own advantage by providing illicit private gains to public officials.
Where there is free and equal access to political power, there are stronger laws, institutions and practices in place to help realize the full value of resource extraction and to manage resulting revenues. This guide shows how political parties can better devise policy platforms for resource governance.
South Africa, like other capital-importing countries, has lost tax revenue from multinational companies’ use of corporate debt financing: foreign companies lend to their South African subsidiaries and deduct interest rates from their taxable income in South Africa.
Four years after the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) began encouraging contract disclosure through its standard, this report assesses the extent to which governments of resource-rich countries have taken up the recommendation.