Myanmar’s state-owned economic enterprises regularly generate approximately 50 percent of the government's fiscal revenues and spend as much in the domestic economy. But there are governance problems, which this report addresses with recommended reforms.
Deals in the oil, gas and mining sectors may be worth billions of dollars over decades. Yet there is surprisingly little systematic guidance for ensuring transparency in allocating and managing the rights to explore for and exploit natural resources.
Fiscal rules—permanent quantitative constraints on government finances—are an important tool to help mitigate the macroeconomic challenges associated with managing natural resource revenues. This paper sheds light on large gaps in compliance and oversight of fiscal rules, and provides policy recommendations on how fiscal rules can be further strengthened.
Government officials in the Kyrgyz Republic are considering levying a tax on the final production of gold ore and concentrate. They hope this will help add value to the country’s mineral production, which in turn might supply minerals to industry, create jobs and generate revenue.
This report responds to requests from the government of the Kyrgyz Republic and follows the Draft Kyrgyz Republic Fiscal Policy Concept 2017-2040 which advises establishing a “tax system on the basis of rent using research on international leading practices in taxation” and the exploring “feasibility of applying a corporate income tax with levying windfall tax elements.”
NRGI reviewed over 50 mining and oil laws and found that none required regulators to actually check whether applicants for extractive licenses are politically exposed persons. This briefing offers advice on how governments can strengthen their extractives licensing policies and processes to tackle basic corruption risks posed by such problematic beneficial ownership linkages.
Where there is free and equal access to political power, there are stronger laws, institutions and practices in place to help realize the full value of resource extraction and to manage resulting revenues. This guide shows how political parties can better devise policy platforms for resource governance.
While discussions on Myanmar gemstone sector reforms have thus far largely focused on jade, little is known about the ruby sector and its role in the country’s economy. This background paper consolidates information on the ruby industry and identifies linkages to broader challenges of peace and reform.