La buena gobernanza de los recursos mineros y energéticos aún no es la norma a nivel mundial. A pesar de que muchos países cuentan con grandes reservas de minerales, gas y petróleo, existe una compartida incapacidad por transformar estos recursos en desarrollo sostenible. Esta “maldición” persigue especialmente a países en África, Asia y América Latina.
Resource-rich Latin American countries did experience high rates of economic growth and diminished poverty and inequality during the boom years. On the surface, this would appear to strengthen arguments that extractive industries are key to progress, especially in resource-rich areas, despite their negative environmental impact. Nevertheless, a closer look shows that things are a bit more complicated.
In most countries, national governments negotiate extraction contracts with companies and collect the revenues, but it is those closest to the extraction site that see their physical and economic landscape change most dramatically.
Many national governments in Latin America have been sharing mining and hydrocarbon revenues with subnational authorities for years. In some of these countries, the amount shared is quite significant. But what are the most effective models?