Villanueva is the director of the Philippine civil society organization Alternative Forum for Research in Mindanao. AFRIM focuses on natural resource management, sustainable rural development and peacebuilding.
Yan Naung Oak is a 2017 School of Data fellow for NRGI Myanmar working on data literacy and data availability in the jade mining sector. Last year, he participated in NRGI's massive online open course, Natural Resources for Sustainable Development: The Fundamentals of Oil, Gas, and Mining Governance. These are his takeaways.
NRGI set out to collect total oil, gas and mining revenue data for the countries included in the Resource Governance Index to find out how many dollars flow to governments that mismanage the handling of their natural resources.
International organizations, fiscal policy experts and transparency advocates agree that civil society and the general public need to understand budget figures to effectively monitor the use of public funds.
Sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) can be effective tools for managing natural resource revenues. However, as their numbers continue to grow, with the largest funds managing hundreds of billions or even a trillion dollars in assets, researchers are paying more attention to how well these funds are governed.
Since its independence from the Soviet Union, the Kyrgyz Republic has undergone more dynamic political development toward democracy compared to neighboring countries. However, it has not met its full economic potential. Continuing reform of its mining sector—identified as one of the five key strategic industries of the economy—is paramount.