Woman walking toward a copper mine in Challhuahuacho, Peru


Peru, spanning both the Andes and the Amazon, has a long history of resource extraction. Mining is the country’s main economic activity.

Photo by Miguel Gutierrez Chero for NRGI
Photo by Miguel Gutierrez Chero for NRGI

Peru is a significant global producer of copper, gold, silver and zinc. It also has hydrocarbon reserves mainly located in the Amazon, a biome comprising over 60 percent of the country’s surface area.

Peru has the potential to benefit from transition minerals such as copper, but must enhance sector governance, transparency, and the distribution and use of income—especially subnationally. Authorities must also implement stronger safeguards and improve environmental and social standards. The country’s crisis-prone politics negatively impact management of its natural resources, exacerbating informality, illegality and corruption.

NRGI collaborates with civil society organizations, officials and journalists to promote transparency in resource extraction, sustainable development, and the inclusion of local people’s voices in decision-making regarding extractive activities.

Mine in Peru

Resource Governance Index

The RGI assessed the governance of Peru's mining sector.