National oil companies are the “hidden half” of the global oil industry. Climate and development advocates who seek to reduce fossil fuel supply and promote sustainable economies must engage with these state-owned companies, many of which are based in countries with high levels of poverty.

After almost a decade of high expectations, Lebanon country still has no proven reserves of oil or natural gas. The country needs a new, more realistic vision of what oil and gas can do for it.

Reactions to emissions agreements reached at COP26 earlier this month were decidedly mixed. But one theme that emerged clearly from the dialogue surrounding the negotiations was the need for a just and equitable energy transition.

Photo: Suthep Kritsanavarin for NRGI