Unlike in the resource-rich country in the film Black Panther, much of Africa’s mining sector is currently dominated by foreign direct investment; its raw minerals are often exported with limited local participation in the sector and tax revenues are eroded.
Since 2013, the EITI Standard has “encouraged” public disclosure of contracts. And while it is difficult to attribute causality to policy change, since the release of the 2013 EITI Standard, nine new countries released contracts, and nine enacted laws that require contract disclosure.
It has been notoriously difficult for citizens in resource-rich countries to lay hands on extractive industry contracts and licenses between their governments and private sector extractive companies. But that seems to be changing.
In August, tensions had escalated between security forces and miners, who blocked roads around several major cities and occupied public offices. Police were dispatched to open roads and defend state property, and violent clashes ensued. Several miners were killed.
La policía dispuso la reapertura de caminos y la defensa de la propiedad estatal, momento en el que se abrió paso la violencia. Varios mineros murieron y el vice ministro Illanes, encargado de negociar con los líderes de la protesta, fue tomado prisionero y luego golpeado hasta la muerte.