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Primer: Granting Rights to Natural Resources

  • Briefing

  • 27 April 2015

The government should encourage efficient exploration and production operations, and allocate rights transparently.


  • Countries should put in place a reliable and consistent mechanism for keeping track of who has rights to extract minerals and access land.
  • Governments can give rights to companies to extract minerals through bilateral negotiations or competitive tenders.
  • Transparency is fundamental. When going through the process of awarding contracts and licenses, all bidders should have access to the same information.
  • Information about the companies themselves must also be as transparent as possible, including information about who ultimately owns them.
  • When companies are given rights to land, they must fairly and transparently compensate landowners.